The North Star Flag
A PROPOSAL FOR A NEW MINNESOTA STATE FLAG
1849 - TERRITORIAL SEAL
The territorial seal was designed by Capt. Seth Eastman at the request of Gov. Alexander Ramsey and Delegate Henry Sibley. Eastman's wife wrote a poem about the seal in which she described the westward flight (into the sunset) of the Indian from the pioneer in Minnesota. These sentiments would cause controversies over the seal in the 1960's. The seal was mistakenly engraved in reverse.
1858 - STATE SEAL
An 1858 bill for a completely new state seal, slated to feature racial harmony, was apparently never signed by Governor Henry Sibley, who simply modified his territorial seal – an arrangement confirmed by law in 1861. Sibley created a new motto for the state seal: "L'étoile du Nord" – which is French for "the North Star." In 1881, the seal was re-cast (with minor changes) after a fire at the Capitol.
1861-65 - CIVIL WAR BATTLE FLAGS
In keeping with Union custom, several Minnesota regiments carried blue regimental colors with the state seal in the center, including the 1st Minnesota (which fought at Gettysburg), and the 2nd, 4th, and 5th Minnesota. Most other Minnesota regimental flags, however, had the American eagle in the center, in accordance with federal regulations. Minnesota's regimental colors are today displayed in the Capitol rotunda on a rotating basis.
1893 - FIRST STATE FLAG
In 1893, the Minnesota delegation to the Chicago World's Fair held a contest (under the auspices of the state legislature) to design a "Minnesota State Flag." The flag would serve as a promotional tool for the state at its exhibition pavilion in Chicago, and had to include various features, including the state seal. The latter may have been influenced by Minnesota's Civil War regimental flags, or by existing state flags elsewhere, or both. Amelia Hyde Center of Minneapolis submitted the winning entry: a white flag with the state seal, framed by other symbols. The reverse of her flag was blue. It became law on April 4; but because of its complexity, it was rarely reproduced for actual use. (Cf. "The Origin of the Minnesota State Flag: A Theory")
1957 - SECOND STATE FLAG
Infrequent use of the state flag and complaints about its bulk and expense caused the legislature to simplify its design, in preparation for the state centennial (1958). A 1955 law established an interim committee to work out the details. The new flag became law in 1957. Both sides of the new state flag were blue, with the reverse side being a mirror-image of the obverse. Citing problems with the committee's ideas, several legislators had instead proposed a completely new design. Chief among them was Rep. John Tracy Anderson, who presented a tricolor design drafted by the adjutant general.
1983 - THIRD STATE FLAG
In 1968, the State Human Rights Commissioner called for a new state seal over concerns that it was supremacist (i.e., portraying Indian flight and pioneer takeover). The request was considered inopportune. However, in 1971 the Secretary of State introduced a semi-official seal on his own initiative, in which the fleeing Indian was replaced by a pioneer on horseback. This seal was used by his office, but never on the state flag. Then, in 1983, a new law restored the Indian to the seal, and standardized the seal's precise design, since many small differences had become evident in its various renditions. In the new design, the Indian rides toward the south (rather than westward), in apparent response to the earlier concerns of civil rights advocates. The new official seal resulted in the third version of the state flag.
1989 - PROPOSAL FOR A NEW FLAG
In 1989, a citizens' coalition began to campaign for a new flag, in time for the centennial of the first state flag (1993). They also proposed the use of the current flag as a ceremonial standard for state executive officers. Two hearings were held in the House Governmental Operations Committee under the bi-partisan sponsorship of Rep. Wayne Simoneau and Rep. Gil Gutknecht. The House leadership did not permit the study to continue. Nevertheless, the proposal received numerous endorsements from international flag experts, including the "architect" of Canada's flag, as well as state newspapers, including the editors of the Minneapolis Star-Tribune. The Saint Paul Pioneer Press even held an unofficial contest for a new state flag. The proposal of the citizens' coalition, whose design is featured throughout these pages, was based on the following international standards for flag design:
A. To Espouse Minnesota's Ideals: the flag's message must be timeless; it must use traditional colors and symbols; its message must be unifying.
B. To Identify our State: it must have a proper graphic form; it must communicate well at a distance; one must be able to remember its design/meaning; it must be easily distinguished from other flags.
C. To Be Widely Used: it should not be too costly; it should be manipulable (in various shapes, sizes); it should admit of exact legal standardization.
2001 - SURVEY RATES MINNESOTA FLAG AS POOR
An international organization of flag scholars, the North American Vexillological Association, published a survey in which flag specialists rated Minnesota's current flag as one of the ten worst designs in the U.S. and Canada. The expert survey judged flag designs according to their visibility at a distance, and effective use of pattern and symbol. News media widely reported the study, which bolstered legislative efforts to change the flag. (Note: Some confusion was caused by media characterizations of the worst designs as "ugly." However, since beauty is in the eyes of the beholder, the study instead rated state flags according to standards of effective design.) Subsequently, two flag redesign contests awarded first place to the North Star Flag (Pioneer Press) and a similar design (Utne Reader).
2000s - LEGISLATIVE BILLS FOR A NEW STATE FLAG
Since 2000, legislative bills to redesign the state flag have been introduced by both Democrats and Republicans. The first bill was introduced by Senator Edward Oliver, and was often re-filed afterward until 2020. From then on, a new and separate bill called for both a new state flag and seal, after Governor Tim Walz noted the seal's painful character during civil unrest that year.
2000: flag bill
2002: flag bill (passed House committee but failed Senate committee)
2006: flag bill (passed Senate committee only)
2007: flag bill
2018: flag bill
2019: flag bill (passed House committee only; hearing here; sponsor report here)
2020: flag bill (passed House committee only; hearing here)
2020, 1st Special Session: flag bill
2020, 2nd Special Session: flag bill; flag/seal bill
2021-22: flag/seal bill (n.b.: SF 847=SF 1196) (passed 2022 House committee; hearing here)
2022: omnibus bill
For an index of relevant media coverage, click here.
QUESTIONS RAISED BY THE HISTORY▪ The state flag has been in use for over a century (despite alterations), and may have roots in some Minnesota battle flags carried in the Civil and Dakota Wars. Does this make its tradition inviolable? When does a flag-design enjoy a "living tradition" as opposed to "heirloom" status?
of the Minnesota state flag and seal:
▪ The seal on the flag originally celebrated the "manifest destiny" of the white man to replace the Indian on the frontier as the U.S. spread westward. What does this history mean for the future of the flag? Should a flag propose socio-political ideals for the future, or instead commemorate actual history (even controversial aspects)?
▪ In 1983 the legislature rearranged the figures to suggest harmony among the races. Can a legislative decree actually redefine the original meaning of the seal and flag?
▪ The state flag has its origins in a small painting; namely, a watercolor of a pioneer and Indian on the frontier. Do paintings make good flags, or do flags comprise a different artistic medium?
▪ Three different versions of the flag have been in force since 1893, due to modifications of its design elements. Have these changes made it a successful symbol of Minnesota for the future?
For more: in addition to the links above, see
William M. Becker, "The Origin of the Minnesota State Flag," Minnesota History (Spring 1992), 2-8 & 41.
David Gillette, “Redesigning Minnesota’s State Flag,” TPT Almanac, News Video, Twin Cities Public Television, March 28, 2018.
Minnesota Legislature, "Minnesota State Symbols," Official Website.
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